Artificial chloroplast! More efficient than natural photosynthesis

Combat global warming, control atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is a common challenge for all mankind. With the United States withdrew from the Paris climate agreement, this challenge has become more daunting. Photosynthesis is the most important natural global carbon dioxide fixing method, carbon can be in the form of a multi-fixed biomass than 100 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year. However, with the rapid development of national industrial capacity, the consumption of fossil fuels surge in natural photosynthesis has not been able to fix the excess carbon dioxide, so the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is rising. Artificial carbon sequestration To address this challenge brings a viable path, while reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide can provide multi-carbon compounds, ease of fossil energy consumption. 2016, German Max – Planck Institute Tobias J. Erb Task Force in \” Science [123 It reported a non-naturally catalyze carbon dioxide fixation enzyme new Approach CETCH cycle] \”on, which is higher than the Kelvin circulation efficiency of sequestration of nature. However, CETCH cycle consumes ATP and NADPH were expensive energy supply, it can not be large-scale use. 人造叶绿体!比自然界的光合作用更高效 Recently, a German Max – Planck Institute Tobias J. Erb with the research group at the University of Bordeaux, France, Jean- Christophe Baret cooperation in the \”Science\” published an article entitled \”Light-powered CO2 fixation in a chloroplast mimic with natural and synthetic parts\” of research papers. Article, the author The droplet microfluidics in the thylakoid membranes (thylakoid membrane) within the native chloroplast CETCH more enzymes seamlessly integrates with solid carbon cycle, the energy source can be constructed using light as Natural and artificial chloroplast efficiency over (Figure 1) . This is capable of producing an artificial chloroplast ATP and NADPH molecules energy through photosynthesis,And to more efficiently convert carbon dioxide into chemicals glycolic acid. On the first isolated thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, spinach and passed through experiments confirmed that the resulting isolated thylakoid membranes capable NADP under illumination conditions + reduction is of NADPH, and capable of converting ADP into ATP. Then OF demonstrated thylakoid membranes able to crotonyl – coenzyme A carboxylase / reductase (crotonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase / reductase (Ccr)) and propionyl – coenzyme A carboxylase (and propionyl-CoA carboxylase ( PCC)) like the carbon dioxide fixation reaction of enzyme required to provide energy. On this basis, it was confirmed thylakoid membrane 16 be compatible and glyoxylate reductase enzymes required CETCH cycle. It is worth mentioning that the enzyme CETCH cycle from a plurality of species of plants, animals, microorganisms, is 人造叶绿体!比自然界的光合作用更高效 It has been found that human carbon fixation reaction pathway shortest path, lowest energy consumption solid carbon cycle. As shown in Figure 2, and thylakoid membrane CETCH cycle to achieve the perfect binding. Thylakoid membranes may be generated under illumination NADPH and ATP, NADPH and ATP CETCH capable of energizing cycles, CETCH circulating carbon dioxide is fixed as glyoxylic acid, glyoxylic acid capable of being reduced in the system for industrial NADPH glycolic acid starting material.

人造叶绿体!比自然界的光合作用更高效 FIG 2, based on the cycle CETCH thylakoid membrane, illumination function can be utilized, carbon fixation efficiency over natural circulation Kelvin.
Since the bulk volume of experiments with limited self-shadowing effect, not monitoring real-time constraints, of

The microfluidic droplets technology to achieve scale-up, high throughput, real-time monitoring and other needs. water in oil droplets, and a variety of membrane thylakoids enzymes in the small droplets, to filter out by NADPH fluorescence having a reactive droplets (FIG. 3A) droplet microfluidics prepared. By comparison of body group, microfluidic droplet group (FIG. 3B), the control group was found, and no light, the droplet microfluidics can significantly improve the conversion efficiency of artificial chloroplast carbon dioxide (FIG. 3C). can be 90 minutesTime to produce 47 ± 5 micromoles of glycolic acid.

人造叶绿体!比自然界的光合作用更高效 FIG. 3, (A) Preparation of the droplet microfluidics artificial chloroplasts; (B) artificial chloroplast duty cycle; (C), the body, microfluidic droplets, dark Comparative carbon fixation efficiency.
In summary, the authors demonstrate a method for the biosynthesis of natural and artificial biosynthesis perfect integration of technology, preparation of artificial chloroplasts has the potential to transcend the natural photosynthesis. Artificial chloroplast ability to take carbon dioxide, and energy curable industrial raw materials to give the artificial biosynthesis, and even artificial life system has important applications. Artificial synthetic chloroplast important for the face of global warming, and other challenges of sustainable fossil fuels, is the synthetic biology field landmark work.

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