It can help mankind to achieve emigrated to Mars silica airgel in the end how much?

In 1971 astronomer Carl Sagan put forward the concept of \”planetary engineering\”, specifically, is the thawing of the polar water ice on Mars, thereby creating a more benign environment. 2018, US scientists found that even if all the available resources on Mars for processing, they can only let the atmospheric pressure reached about 7% of the Earth. Now, scientists have also proposed a new idea, the use of silica airgel simulate the Earth\’s greenhouse effect, and thus a specific area of ​​the surface of Mars to be transformed.

能帮助人类实现移居火星的二氧化硅气凝胶到底有多厉害?
can help people realize silica airgel moved to Mars in the end how much?

scientists proposed to use silica airgel simulate the greenhouse effect the Earth\’s atmosphere, specific area of ​​the surface of Mars to transform the \”planetary engineering\” a long time, they dreamed of the transformation of human Mars climate, it becomes a planet suitable for human habitation. Astronomer Carl Sagan was the first person to put forward a serious transformation of the planet Mars. He pointed out in a paper in 1971, the Arctic ice cap of Mars evaporation can generate vast amounts of gas, global temperatures increase by the greenhouse effect on Mars, thereby increasing the possibility of allowing water to remain liquid. Sagan papers prompt other scientists and futurists seriously transformation of the planet Mars related ideas. The key question is whether there is enough greenhouse gases and water on Mars, allowing atmospheric pressure is increased to a considerable level with the earth? 2018, researchers from the University of Colorado at Boulder NASA-funded and Northern Arizona University found that even do all the resources available on Mars, atmospheric pressure can only be allowed to reach about 7% of the Earth. In other words, in this way will transform Mars into a habitable planet is tantamount to nonsense. Silica airgel

火星地球化改造过程
Mars Earth transformation process

Now, Harvard University, NASA\’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the University of Edinburgh scientists have proposed a new idea: we do not necessary for the entire planet Mars transformation, you can try the local regional transformation. Researchers have proposed to use silica airgel simulated earth greenhouse effect, a specific region to transform the surface of Mars. By modeling and experiments, researchers found that a silica airgel layer is capable of transmitting two to three centimeters in thickness sufficient visible light for photosynthesis, while blocking harmful ultraviolet radiation, so that the airgel layer andTemperature below the melting point of water is always above. All of these processes are involved without any internal heat source. Research papers published in \”Nature Astronomy\” magazine.

火星地貌艺术概念图
Mars topography Art concept map

John Paulson Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Engineering, and Environmental Sciences Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences Assistant Professor Robin Waugh Des Voss said: \”local transformation than the transformation of the global atmosphere of Mars will be easier to implement different ideas become livable planet and had put forward, this approach can be systematically related materials and technology research and development aid that we already know. . and test \”NASA\’s jet propulsion laboratory scientist Laura Cobble said:\” Mars is a planet in the solar system except the most livable planet but for many lives, it is still a hostile. world can create a livable island system will allow us in a controllable, scalable way to Mars transformation. \”能帮助人类实现移居火星的二氧化硅气凝胶到底有多厉害? Mars Polar ice cap is composed of water ice and frozen carbon dioxide. As with gaseous carbon dioxide, the solid carbon dioxide and also allows the capture of heat of the sun through. In summer, this can be formed at the solid ice greenhouse \”warming bag\”, i.e. black dots picture Earth polar ice caps (consisting of frozen water) is different from the Mars Polar ice caps carbon dioxide and water ice frozen constitution. As with gaseous carbon dioxide, the solid carbon dioxide and also allows sunlight to pass through the heat can be captured. Summer, capable of forming such solid greenhouse effect \”warming bag\” under ice. This phenomenon undoubtedly inspired scientists. Cosworth Ward said: \”We started to pay attention this solid state greenhouse effect, and how to use it in the future to make Mars suitable for human habitation become what we began to study the thermal conductivity of the material can be reduced to a minimum, while still transport as much as possible. much light. \”ultimately, the researchers focused mostly on silica airgel, it is one of the most insulating materials scientist developed.

经过地球化改造的火星
After transformation of the planet Mars

97% of silica airgel are loose porous structure, which means that light can pass through such a material, but interconnected silica nanoparticles layer may reflect the radiation, while a significant reduction in heat conduction. This airgel has many applications in engineering fields, such as NASA\’s Mars rover survey. Cobble said: \”Because of this effect is passive, silica airgel material is a kind of exploration prospects. It does not require a lot of energy and maintenance of moving parts, can in the long term as a thermal insulation zone. \”The use of relevant models and experiments simulated Martian surface, the researchers demonstrated that a thin layer of silica airgel can make the average temperature of the Martian mid-latitudes of the Earth quite Ward Cosworth said:.\” In an area enough a large area of ​​surface and underground placement of a layer of silica airgel, without any technical or other means of physics, you can get a permanent liquid water. \”

“好奇”号火星车,正对火星进行勘测
\” curiosity \”rover, is a survey of Mars

Silica airgel may be used on Mars habitat construction, the construction may be even completely independent . biosphere Cosworth Ward said: \”the use of this material will bring a series of interesting engineering problem. \”Next, the team will work with Mars Climate in similar areas on Earth to test this material, such as dry valleys of Antarctica or Chile. Ward Cosworth noted that any discussion related to the transformation of the planet Mars will lead to important philosophical issues and ethical issues related to the protection of the planet. \”If we want to survive life on Mars, we must first answer a question, namely whether there is life on Mars? If life exists, how should we respond? We decided to let the human settlement of Mars that moment on, these problems are inevitable. \”

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