Plastic Terminator: Ten green alternative to bring you into a new life
Yin Set Network News Channel: plastics are durable, flexible, and long-term existence. They are also ubiquitous. For these ubiquitous polymers, which they are not like people everywhere else? They are composed of carbon and other materials, and then heated, and decomposition can be molded into almost any shape by plastic resin. However, carbon is usually derived from petroleum, an environmentally harmful fossil fuel products. In addition, many types of plastic can not be biodegradable. Although some plastics can be recycled, but most can not (or because they can not or because people can not). For example, in the United States each year there are more than 7 billion lbs (3.2 billion kilograms) of waste PVC, of which only about 0.25% can be recycled, PVC is the most common plastic. In our daily lives, it is so difficult to give up the plastic is hard to imagine life without them. However, more environmentally friendly alternative materials have appeared. Ready to see these ten environmentally friendly alternative materials yet? Tenth: Glass instead of fossil fuels glass – but made of sand. Once, mothers and milkman for milk bottles. Now just look in your kitchen, you might see a lot of plastic – water bottles, soda bottles, food storage containers. Times have changed. Sometimes, back to the past is a good thing. Plastics typically derived from fossil fuels with different glass of sand. This renewable resource will penetrate without food or body chemicals. And easy to recycle, whether you put the bottle thrown into the trash again become new bottles, or re-use glass bottles to store leftovers. Of course, if the throw may shatter, but it will not melt in your microwave oven. Ninth place: reusable shopping bags Reusable shopping bags are everywhere, and can be used in any form you like or decorative flags. In one convenient place, so you do not forget to bring them. When the first occurrence of plastic bags, we are faced with a choice: paper or plastic. Provide alternatives to plastic bags now find shops, as if to find a vegetarian burger in the same refrigerator. If you\’re not very careful use of plastic bags people, you will find yourself walking home, each thing with a plastic bag. In fact, in countries like the United States, not immediately placed in plastic bags after buying something that is very little. No wonder plastic bagsIt seemed to be everywhere. In the United States, about one billion plastic bags each year, less than 1% is recycled [source: Clean Air Committee]. 300,000 tons (272,155 metric tons) of US urban garbage is not processed in the town, many final discharge in the ocean [source: Clean Air Committee]. They kill millions of sea turtles, birds and marine mammals each year [Source: California Environment]. But anyway, you also have to drag those groceries home. So how would you do? First, use reusable shopping bags. You can reusable shopping bag, printed with your name or your bank / Fitness / frozen yogurt shop pattern. Everyone took them out, they have a canvas, woven plastic fiber, hemp, cotton and even leather and other materials. You will also find nylon shopping bag can be folded fit in your pocket in. In fact, any type can be, regardless of whether it is used to carry groceries. Advantages: Avoid plastic bag in your cupboard accumulate, they will not have to worry about where to go throw. Eighth: Plastics Additives Some busy developing alternatives to plastics, while others tend to conventional thermoplastic biodegradable. How to do it? It is called pre-degradation additive concentrate (of PDCs) a. PDCs are generally metal compounds, such as manganese stearate or cobalt stearate. They promote the oxidation process, the plastic is decomposed into low molecular weight decomposition section brittleness. Microbial decomposition stage phagocytosis, convert them into carbon dioxide, water and biomass, these products reportedly contain harmful residues. Search additive technology, you will encounter the trade name TDPA (totally degradable plastic additives abbreviation) or masterbatch pellets (MBP). They used to produce thin disposable plastic shopping bags, diapers, trash bags, landfill cover and food containers (including fast food containers). When 3% is added to the polyethylene PDCs (standard plastic material), to promote almost complete degradation; four weeks, 95% of the plastic pieces can be processed into bacteria [Source: Nolan-ITU Pty]. Although not strictly biodegradable sense (like a \”biological dissolution\”), a polymer comprising PDS than those required landfill for hundreds of years more environmentally friendly pure polymer in a landfill. PDC problem? Biodegradable plastics look and feel and we encourage recycling of plastic products the same. So, if we happen to recycle those bags biodegradable, what happens? The potential consequences are catastrophic, recycled polyethylene pump PDC additive contamination is unlikely to continue to use for a long time. In fact, plastics recycling in South Africa feel strong, biodegradable materials with additives PDC system does not adapt to the circulation process, so they want to prohibit the use of PDC added biodegradable materials in the country. Seventh place: milk protein forget the plastic made from milk, the figure is a clothes designer and chief biological scientist made with milk. All newborn mammals rely on it to survive. Without it, there would be no ice cream. We can not deny the value of milk. Currently, scientists say milk can help biodegradable furniture cushions, insulation, packaging and other plastic products of preparation. Yes, researchers are trying to use the main milk protein – casein, is converted into a biodegradable material, so that stiffness and compression polystyrene phase matching. Since the 1880s, casein-based plastic already exist, when the French chemist casein with formaldehyde to produce the material can be used instead of ivory or tortoise shell. Although the Queen Mary as the ideal jewelry, but casein-based plastic is too brittle, and applies only to decorate. Scientists have found a way to make the protein is not easy to crack, the use of sodium silicate clay is called montmorillonite. Sodium montmorillonite frozen into the spongy material is called airgel, casein plastic is injected into the porous network between the clay. The results of it? Polystyrene-based materials, when placed in landfills, complete degradation starts [Source: \”The Economist\”]. Thanks silicate framework, modern milk-based plastic is not easily broken, by replacing them with formaldehyde glyceraldehyde, reduced toxicity. Casein plastic future is uncertain, but use it to replace petroleum-based polystyrene, is sure to be another reason we like milk. Sixth: Chicken feathers Circuit board chicken feathers? How to look at this idea fly the coop. What could be more attractive than the technology to convert landfill waste into biodegradable plastics do? Processing chicken feathers is a problem, It must be processed each year in the United States more than three billion lbs (1.4 billion kilograms) [source: Science Daily]. Because innovation, they may soon become a source of new waterproof thermoplastics. Almost all of feather keratin, proteins may provide a high-strength and toughness and durability of the plastic. The protein in hair and wool, hoof and horn found horseshoe without being kicked, we can feel strong hooves. Researchers decided to explore the characteristics of superior keratin, feathers treated by methyl acrylate, methyl acrylate for nail polish. Finally, the keratin-based plastic made proved higher strength than a plastic agricultural resources such as soy or other starches, tear resistance more. After all, cheap abundant feather is a renewable resource. Although not officially been tested and feathers completely biodegradable plastics is expected to achieve. Fifth place: the liquid timber is liquid wood-product of paper mills, as shown in FIG. Next there is exciting new bio-plastics or biopolymers are called liquid wood. Pretend biopolymer; these materials appear, feels and performs like as plastic, but unlike the petroleum-based plastics, they may be biodegradable. This particular biopolymer lignin from pulp, a renewable resource. The mill by-product manufacturer – lignin is mixed with water, and then the mixture is exposed to high heat and high pressure environment, for producing a high strength and plasticity of the composite non-toxic. German researchers have put this plastic substitute for a variety of items including toys, and even golf care and high-fidelity speaker box. Because it is made of wood, it can be used as timber recycling. Fourth place: polycaprolactone These lines may be referred to as day polycaprolactone low degradable plastic. The next three entries are list of biodegradable plastics, known as an aliphatic polyester. In summary, they are different from the aromatic polyester, aromatic polyesters such as water bottles are usually made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Since the aromatic polyesters may be completely resistant to microbial degradation, a lot of time and effort to put an aliphatic polyester viable alternative. Polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic aliphatic polyester, although not made from renewable resources, but can be completely degraded after six weeks. It is very easy to process, butNot yet widely used, because the production cost. However, the polycaprolactone and corn starch are mixed cost can be reduced. Biomedical devices and suture has been made of slow degradation of the polymeric material and tissue engineering researchers a study. It has applications in the food-related products, such as pallets. The third: polyhydroxyalkanoates Molasses: the production of plastic sweet source \”polyester naturally occurring\” may sound like empty marketing activities, but some types of feed sugar bacteria, you\’ll get your own plastic production line. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) is such, wherein the two main members are polyhydroxybutrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV). The biodegradable plastics with similar Polypropylene. Although they did not petroleum-based plastics flexible, you will find them in the packaging, plastic film and injection molded bottle. Because the cost of production reasons, PHA is placed in the shadow of cheap petroleum-based plastic, but cheap purchase of raw materials a little creativity may soon make it the first choice. Corn steep liquor, molasses, or even the active sludge bacteria are raw materials for the production of plastic to provide a sugar. By making compost degrade PHAs; PHB / PHV complex (weight ratio of 92% PHB / 8% PHV) by culturing the main biological treatment plant – anaerobic digestion sludge, which will be almost completely decomposed in 20 days [Source: Nolan-ITU Pty Ltd]. second: polylactic acid She was to show off plastic container made from cornstarch. Corn production of plastic that looks like a pipe dream, but every day are taking place. Polylactic acid, also known as PLA, is another aliphatic polyester made of lactic acid in the corn wet milling process, the lactic acid obtained by fermentation of starch. While it is generally from corn, wheat may also be made of polylactic acid or sugar cane. The polylactic acid to enhance the stiffness, so that it can replace polystyrene and poly (ethylene terephthalate), but it has a real advantage: in industrial composting plant exploded 47 days, do not emit toxic combustion gases, petroleum and compared plastic, making them less fossil fuel using 20-50% [source: Nakazawa]. Typically, the starch companyMixing the polylactic acid and to reduce costs and improve their biodegradability. Consumers may experience polylactic acid bottles, bags and films, but these are just the beginning of its application. In fact, if the 114 million Wal-Mart to use polylactic acid containers per year, company executives estimated that they could save 800,000 barrels of oil per year [Source: Royte]. If that was not enough, so scientists are trying to make polylactic acid higher strength, better heat resistance. This popular green plastic will develop new applications, from automotive parts to the coffee cup. The first: starch-based polymers means to improve the biodegradability of these bottles do not exist in our environment for too long. As completely biodegradable, low cost, renewable natural polymers and starch material can be developed continuously recently received considerable attention. When it comes to replace the plastic, however, can not meet the requirements of the starch, which means that the poor mechanical properties of the starch product used is limited, can not provide the properties of the plastic products. One of the trends developing biodegradable plastics is the most popular of the polymer composite material to improve biodegradability. Starch may be associated with this, albeit with varying degrees of success. In order to produce the completely biodegradable starch-based plastic, is usually mixed with the starch component is an aliphatic polyester, such as polylactic acid, polycaprolactone and polyvinyl alcohol. Was added to the starch also reduces the manufacturing costs of plastic. Have a significant impact on the degradation, it requires more than 60% starch composite, as the starch content increases, the polymer becomes more degradation [Source: Nolan-ITU Pty Ltd]. Remember, adding more starch also affects the properties of plastics. If you put wet leaves on the package starch, starch when you pick up the package, it will make a mess. Thus, while there is no production of the plastic to be more environmentally friendly tactics, change old ideas and to enhance the combination of plastic technology is a step in the right direction.