Science Release: Global Challenges topic frontier top 125

2016, Science published the 125 most challenging scientific issues in the next quarter of a century, people will be working on solving these problems. This 125 subject as follows (before 25 is considered the most important issue): 125 science topics most challenging Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 1, what constitutes the universe Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 2. What is the biological basis of consciousness?? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 3, why so few human genes? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 4, how genetic variation and human health related degree? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 5, can unify the laws of physics? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 6, the human life span can be extended in the end how long ? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 7, is what controls organ regeneration? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 8, how skin cells into nerve cells? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 9, how a single individual cells into whole plants? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 10, how inside the earth? [ 123] 11, if the Earth humans unique in the universe? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 12, where life on Earth to produce, how to produce? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 13, what determines the diversity of species? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 14, creating what genes change a uniquely human? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 15, how to store and restore memory? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 16, how cooperative behavior of human development? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 17, how to generate large viewing pictures from the massive biological data? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 18, the development level of chemical self-organization? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 19, what is the limit of traditional computing? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 20, we can selectively cut off certain immune response? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 21, quantum non-locality and uncertainty whether there is a deeper principle behind? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 22, the ability to develop an effective HIV vaccine? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 23, the greenhouse effect will make the Earth\’s temperature to how high? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 24, what time what energy can replace oil ? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 25, Earth in the end how many people can afford? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 26, whether the universeThe only? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 27, what is driving expansion of the universe? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 28, the first stars and galaxies when a produce, how to produce? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 29, ultra-high energy cosmic rays come from? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 30, is What to power the quasar? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 31, what is the nature of the black hole is? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 32, n antimatter species than why? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 33, it proton decays? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 34, what is the nature of gravity ? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 35, why the time is different than the other dimensions? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 36, if there are less than quark elementary particles? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 37, neutrino its own antiparticle it? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 38, whether a unified theory to explain all of the electronic system? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 39, most humans can be produced laser it? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 40, an optical lens can create the perfect? ​​Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 41, the possibility of manufacturing a magnetic at room temperature semiconductor? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 42, what is the mechanism after a pair of high-temperature superconductivity? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 43, can develop a comprehensive theory of the turbulent kinetic and kinematic particulate material? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 44, if there is a stable high atomic weight elements? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 45, if there is solid super mobility? If so, how to explain? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 46, how the structure of water? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 47, what is the nature of the glassy substance is? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 48, whether there is a reasonable limit chemical synthesis of? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 49, how the ultimate efficiency of photovoltaic cells? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 50, nuclear fusion will eventually become a future energy it? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 51 because the drive solar magnetic cycle, what is? [ 123] 52, how planets form? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 53, what triggered the Ice Age? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 54, what is the reason for the reversal of Earth\’s magnetic field is? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 55, if there is an earthquake prediction threatened help? [123 ]56, on the other planets of the solar system now and in the past whether life exists? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 57, what is the origin of chirality is the principle of nature? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 58, can predict protein folding? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 59, there is a protein in the human body how many existence? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 60, how proteins find their role objects? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 61, cell death, how many forms? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 62, what is to keep the traffic within the cell smoothly? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 63, and why cells the ingredients may be independently DNA and replicating itself? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 64, the function of the genome different from what the role of RNA are? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 65, what role genome telomere and centromere is? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 66, why some large genome, others are rather compact? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 67, genome \”junk\” ( \”junk\”) What is the role? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 68, the cost of new DNA sequencing technology allows much lower? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 69 how organs and whole organisms in the stop time growth? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 70, in addition to inherited mutations in the genome to be changed? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 71, in the embryo, asymmetry is determined? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 72, wing, fin and faces how it evolved? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 73, what triggers puberty? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 74, the stem cell is located at the center of all tumors? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 75, the tumor is more likely to be controlled by the immune it? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 76, tumor control whether easier than cure? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 77, inflammation is the main cause of all chronic diseases it? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 78, the BSE will be how to develop? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 79. how dependent vertebrate innate immune system to resist infectious disease? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 80, for antigens, immune memory requires prolonged exposure to it? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 81, why pregnant women\’s immune system does not reject the fetus? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 82, what with biological organismsClock synchronization? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 83, migratory how organisms find their migration route? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 84 Why sleep? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 85, why humans dream? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 86, language learning Why there is a critical period? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 87, pheromones affect human behavior? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 88, how general anesthetics play a role? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 89. What causes schizophrenia is? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 90, what is the cause of autism? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 91 Alzheimer\’s patients life can last long? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 92, what is the biological basis of addiction? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 93, how the brain establish moral values? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 94, learning through computer limit What is? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 95, how many personality hereditary? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 96, what the biological roots of sexual orientation is? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 97, the tree of life is the best life relationship between expression system do? [ 123] 98, there is on Earth many species? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 99, what is the species? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 100, why horizontal transfer occur in many species and how it happened? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 101, who is the common ancestor of the world? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 102, flowers of the plant how evolution? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 103, how a plant producing cell wall? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 104, how to control plant growth? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 105, why all plants not immune to all diseases? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 106, under external pressure environment, what is the basis of variation in plants? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 107, what causes matter to disappear? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 108, can avoid species extinction? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 109, some of the dinosaur Why so large? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 110, how ecosystems respond to global warming? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 111, since the total number of races, what is the relationship between them? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 112, what it is to enhance the modern human behavior? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 113, what is the root of human culture? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 114, the root causes of the evolution of language and music, what is? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 115, what is race, ethnicity how evolution? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 116, why move forward in some countries, and some developing countries stagnated? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 117, high government deficits have any effect on the national interest and economic growth? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 118, political and economic It is closely related to freedom? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 119, and why efforts to change the state of poverty in sub-Saharan almost all fail? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 120, there is no simple way to determine whether an elliptic curve infinitely many solutions exist? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 121, Hodge closed chain chain is algebraically closed and it? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 122, the final solution will mathematician Navier-Stokes equations gives it? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 123, determines whether the experiment Poincare sphere 4 dimensional space? Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 124 ?, zero solution Riemann zeta function has the form of a + bi do Science发布:全球前沿顶级挑战课题125项 125, the standard model of particle physics research will stop if the quantum theory Yahg-Mills (Note:? last six selected mathematical problems mathematical Clay the new millennium issues raised Institute) briefly summarized statistics which 125 issues, issues relating to life sciences accounted for 46% of the universe and the problem of the relationship between the Earth accounted for 16%, material science-related issues accounted for more than 14%, cognitive science issues accounted for 9%. The remaining issues are involved in mathematics and computer science, politics and economy, energy, environment and population. Source: \”Science\”, taken from Tongji University (Natural Science)