The hydrogel was born 60 years ago, and now to improve the lives of countless people!
Boxer opened in 2020 impressed us, there is a disaster, more stick and moving. 60 years ago, 1960 Boxer also a memorable year, year, hydrogels turned out, laid a solid foundation for the application of the polymer in the biological field. Life has long been inseparable from plastic! With advances in technology, it is natural to consider the possibility of plastic and tissue in permanent contact. A literature study shows that almost all known plastics have been used for this purpose at different times. However, conventional plastic poor compatibility with living tissue, which causes a local hard solid mechanical stimulation, low molecular weight part and a long-term slow diffusion irritating substances to the tissue, and even lead to tumor growth; Furthermore, the metabolism of living organisms produced It was difficult to penetrate these polymer materials, have an impact on normal physiological activity. So scientists must be assessed for each plastic from these angles. polyvinyl though these problems, but its main drawback is easily absorbed, and therefore not applicable.
1960 years after considering the above described effects, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences Otto Wichterle made, biocompatible polymeric material must meet the following requirements: (1) Production of a polymer must contain a certain amount of water; (2) inert to the normal biological processes (including polymer resistance to degradation of organic matter and adverse reaction); (3) permeable to metabolites. Thus materials having these properties must have a hydrophilic group, in addition, they must have a three-dimensional structure crosslinked at least enough to prevent absorption.
The first embodiment hydrogel Johnny
having significant characteristics of the polyelectrolyte hydrophilic materials (with bases or carboxyl) adversely affect the living body, due to excessive expansion, which chemical stability even as ethylene glycol. After a number of attempts in the polymer, Otto Wichterle and Drahoslav Lim and found to contain 0.1% of ethylene methyl acrylate methacrylate hydroxyethyl acrylateMost appropriate body . Even under very harsh conditions, they hard hydrolysis and biologically inert . In addition, their Mechanical properties and an adjustable moisture content to to satisfy high temperature , Sterilization and No damage [ 123] and other requirements. First of methyl acrylate monomer, a crosslinking agent for the ethylene methacrylates of of the first embodiment hydrogel history was prepared. When the moisture content is greater than the equilibrium capacity of the gel, the aqueous phase droplets coalesce into interconnected pores to form a porous network structure. The size of these holes depend on the polymerization conditions. Dried sample is a transparent solid material, soaked in water after the polymer network can be firmly locked like a sponge of water molecules, the water content of the material to ensure, showing the original shape and structure. This paper takes \” Hydrophilic Gels for Biological Use \” in the title, on January 9, 1960, published in Nature on, not to account for a layout, allows later life has undergone enormous changes.
This hydrogel material is not only soft, but also to let oxygen through, and has excellent light transmission properties, is more appropriate to make the contact lens material. However, new problems have cropped up: productivity is too low. After keep trying, Wichterle, and finally found spin-coating method for the efficient production of contact lenses . In one week, he and his wife processed hundreds of contact lenses. In 1971, Dr.Fallon successfully passed the FDA approval, the contact lenses on the market, and achieved great success. And contact lenses through continuous development and process improvement, wearer discomfort getting lower and lower. Now, the world has more than 100 million people wear contact lenses. In recognition of his outstanding contribution in the field of polymer, 1993, No. 3899 asteroid named in his honor. In his centenary, Czech specially issued commemorative stamps and coins.